All children test the limits you set and try to cross boundaries some of the time. This is all part of growing up, learning and becoming an independent person. It is important to remember that babies behave as they do in order to get their needs met. Crying or not sleeping is not them being naughty or done to upset you. Older babies may spit out food they don’t like or wriggle away from a nappy change. All they are doing is trying to communicate their likes and dislikes in the only way they can.
Many reasons for challenging behaviour can be put down to simple things like tiredness or hunger, attention seeking, a change in a child’s life (maybe a new nursery or a new baby in the house) or they may feel powerless and frustrated because they cannot put into words what they want to tell you.
You can use positive feedback when they are misbehaving too. Tell them you are upset about their behaviour, not them. That way they will not see themselves as a naughty person and know they have the power to change the way they act. It is up to you to set boundaries and rules in their life, which will change as they grow. Discuss your parenting styles early on with your partner so you both keep to consistent rules.
Sometimes, it’s just some one to one time they need. Give them your full attention, with no distactions. Talk to them about how they feel, play with them, read to them or just enjoy a cuddle.